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05刘晓艳笔记之状语从句

1. 形容词(短语)和副词(短语)

1.1 形容词(短语)

  • 放在系动词后面作表语

    例如: He becomes tough these days.

  • 放在宾语后面作补语(此用法不太常见)

    例如: The reality makes him tough these days.

  • 放在名词(短语)前面作定语
    例如: He has become a tough man these days.

我们发现了一个规律,不论形容词(短语)作什么成分,都是围着名词(短语)/代词转, 也就是说形容词(短语)无论作什么成分都是修饰名词(短语)/代词的。

1.2 副词(短语)

  • He smiles sweetly.副词 sweetly修饰实义动词 smiles..
  • He looks pretty sweet.副词 pretty修饰形容词 sweet.
  • He smiles especially sweetly.副词 especially修饰副词 sweetly.
  • Luckily, he passed the examination.副词 Luckily修饰整个句子.

副词(短语)可以修饰实义动词(词组)、形容词(短语)和整个句子,副词甚至还可 以修饰副词。

副词在句中作状语,并且副词(短语)只能作状语。

2. 什么是状语

🔥在一个句子中,用来修饰实义动词(词组)、形容词(短语)、副词或整个句子的成分, 叫作状语。🔥

2.1 成分

  • 副词: She smiles sweetly.
  • 副词短语: I tried again and again.
  • 介词短语: He runs fast like a crazy dog.
  • 分词、不定式: He leaves, crying.
  • 从句: I will return the book as soon as I have read it.

2.2 位置

状语的位置极其灵活,可以随意放置在句中,但是放在句首或句末的情况居多.如果放 在句首的话,通常用逗号隔开.

  • In Chongqing, I am now working.
  • I am now working in Chongqing.
  • I am now in Chongqing working.

3. 状语从句

3.1 构成

状语从句可以放在主句之前,也可以放在主句之后。

  • 引导词 + 状语从句+“,”+主句(状语从句放句首时,必须加逗号。

  • 主句+引导词+状语从句(状语从句放在主句后,可以加逗号,也可以不加逗号。)

3.2 引导词

按照引导词 本身的意思进行分类。一共分为九类:时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、目的 状语从句、结果状语从句、条件状语从句、让步状语从句、方式状语从句和比较状语从句。

因为状语从句的引导词是按照引导词本身的意思来进行分类的,所以状语从句可以 是最简单的从句,每个引导词都有确定的意思。比如

3.3 状语从句时态

  • 当主句表示将来的时候,主句使用一般将来时,从句使用一般现在时,用“现在” 表示“将来”。例如:(主句:将来, 从句:现在)
    I will treat you if I manage to pass the examination of postgraduates。 如果我考研成功,我就请你吃饭。
  • 当主句表示将来完成的时候,主句使用将来完成时,从句要使用现在完成时。如:(主句:将来完成,从句:现在完成)
    As soon as I have finished this work, I will have gone home。 如果我早完成工作的话,我现在已经到家了。
    【解析】这种用法很少见到,该从句中的谓语动词用现在完成时 have finished来表示将来完成,绝不可用 will have finished。
  • 当主句表示过去的时候,主句与从句都可以使用相应的过去时态。例如:(主句:过去完成,从句:过去)
    Before I went home, my mother had slept。在我回家之前,我的妈妈已经睡了。
    【解析】在这个句子中,两个动作都是发生在过去,理应使用相应的过去时,但是主句的动作发生在从句之前,因此主句应使用过去完成时。
  • 总结

​ —过去完成—过去—现在完成—现在—将来—将来完成—

​ 从句比主句退时不退态。退无可退就变态。

4. 时间状语从句(1/9)

4.1 引导词

  • 普通引导词

    when(在…时),as(正当/随着), while(在…期间),once(一旦), as soon as(一…就…), before(在…之前), after(在…之后), since(自从…以来), not… until(直到…才), until/tll(直到…时)等.

  • 名词短语

    the moment(一…就), every time(每当), the day(那一天), the instant (当…的时候)等.

  • 副词

    immediately, directly, no sooner…than, hardly.when, scarcely…when(这五个 意思相同,都译为”一…就”)等.

4.2 when, while和as的区别

when引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延续性动词,也可以是短暂性动词,通常表示 “当…时”.例如:

  • When the teacher came in, we stop talking.

    当老师进来时,我们都不说话了.(短暂性动词)

  • When I lived in the countryside, I used to live a tough life.

    当我住在农村时,我过着艰苦的 生活.(延续性动词)

while引导的从句的谓语动词必须是延续性的动词,多用于进行时态,表示”在…时”, 强调时间段的持续性,也可强调主从句的对比.例如:

  • While my mother was reading the newspaper, I was watching TV.

    当我妈妈在看报纸时,我 正在看电视.( was reading是延续性的动词, was reading和 was watching同时发生.)

  • I like playing football while you like playing basketball.

    我喜欢踢足球,而你喜欢打篮球.(对 比)

as引导从句的谓语动词是延续性的动词,表示”一边…一边”,一般用于主句和从 句动作同时发生;as也可表示”随着…”.例如:

  • We always sing as we walk.我们总是边走边唱.

    (as表示”一边…一边”)

  • As families moved away from their stable community, the informal flow of information is cut off.

    随着家庭离开他们稳定的社区,这种非正式的信息流就被切断了.(as表示”随着…”)

4.3 when引导时间状语从句的特殊用法

  • 省略状语主语

    When I was a little girl, I loved Jeff so much.
    【解析】When引导时间状语从句,如果从句和主句主语一致,并且从句的谓语中有be 动词,此时从句的主语和be动词可以一起省略. 省略后是: When a little girl, I loved Jeff so much.

​ 但是 When I loved Jeff, I could sing all his songs.这句话就不能写成上面的形式,因为从句的谓语中没有be.

4.4 no sooner.…than和 hardly.…when引导

①含义:表示”一…就…”.
②时态:主句用过去完成时,从句用一般过去时.

  • I had no sooner begun to take a shower, the water was unavailable.

    我一开始洗澡,就停水了.

  • They hardly had arrived at the bus stop when the bus started to leave.

    他们一赶到车站,车就 开走了.

4.5 区分 until和not.… until

I will wait here until you come. // 等 延续性
I will not leave until you come. // 离开 短暂性

【解析】其实not… until并没有翻译成否定的意思.它们的区别在于主句的谓语动词,

🔥如果主句的谓语动词是短暂性动词,就用 not…until;如果是延续性动词,就用 until.🔥

5. 地点状语从句(2/9)

5.1 引导词

常用引导词:where.

不常用引导词: wherever, anywhere, everywhere等.

5.2 where引导的地点状语从句与定语从句区别

地点状语从句和定语从句的引导词都有 where,所以非常容易混淆。两种从句的翻译方法是一样的,但两者在语法意义上是天差地别的。

🔥区分这两种句子最关键的就是看 where是 否指代前面的先行词,如果指代前面的先行词就是定语从句,否则是地点状语从句。🔥

5.2.1 例子1

当 where引导地点状语从句时, where是从属连词,从句修饰主句的谓语动词, where 前边没有表示地点的先行词。如:

  • I find my phone where I had lost it。我在丢手机的地方找到了我的手机。

当 where引导定语从句时,从句修饰先行词, where是关系副词,代替表地点的先行词.如:

  • This is the house where I lived two years ago.这就是我住了两年的房子.

    where引导的从句修饰 house这个名词

5.2.2 例子2

① The man made a mark where he has left the swoop.(地点状语从句)
② The man made a mark at the place where he has left the swoop.(定语从句)

两句话都翻译成:这个人在丢剑的地方做了标记.

5.2.3 转换

一般在状语从句前加上”in/ at the+具体地点”,就变成定语从句

状语从句: We will start where we left off.
定语从句: We wil start at the point where we left off.

6. 原因状语从句(3/9)

6.1 引导词

  • 常用引导词:

    because, since,as,for等.

  • 不常用引导词:

    seeing that, now that, in that, considering that, given that, as much as, so much as等.

    虽然不常用,但是和常用的引导词相比,用法没有太大区别.

  • 需要注意的是有一些介词短语,也翻译成”因为”,但它们后面只能跟名词(短语), 不能跟从句

    because of, due to, owing to, thanks to, for the sake of, as a result of等.

6.2 示例

因为他粗心,他昨天出了一场车祸.

  • Because he was careless, he had a car accident yesterday.

  • Because of his carelessness, he had a car accident yesterday.

【提示】需要注意的是在这批表示”因为”的介词短语中, due to通常放在句末,不放 在句首;而 owing to通常放在句首,不放在句末;其他的短语则可前可后。

7. 目的状语从句(4/9)

7.1 引导词

  • 常用引导词

    so that, in order that等.

  • 常见的动词不定式也可以表示目的:

    to, in order to, so as to等,后跟动词原形.

7.2 示例

为了能有一个更美好的未来,我决定考研.

  • I am determined to take part in the examination of postgraduates so that I could have a brighter future.

  • I am determined to take part in the examination of postgraduates in order to have a brighter future.

8. 结果状语从句(5/9)

8.1 引导词

  • 常用引导词

    so that, so… that, such…that

  • 不常用引导词

    to the degree that, to the extent that, to such a degree that

8.2 so that,so.…that和such…that的区别

8.2.1 so that

so that既可以引导目的状语从句,也可以引导结果状语从句.引导目的状语从句时, 会和情态动词一起连用;引导结果状语从句时,则不和情态动词连用.

  • 目的状语从句: I hurried through my work so that I could be on time for the TV.

    我匆忙完成工作以便准时收看电视节目.

  • 结果状语从句: We moved to the country so that we were away from the noisy city.

    我们搬去郊外,这样便远离了喧闹的城市。

8.2.2 so.…that
  • so+形容词/副词+that(可以as…as…句型替换)
    The movie was so boring that I gave up watching it halfway through.

    这部电影太乏味了,以至于我看到一半就不想看了.

  • so+many/much/few/ little+名词+that
    He got so little money that his family had to live on welfare.

    他挣钱很少,以至于他的家人不得不靠救济金生活.

  • so+形容词+a/an+可数名词单数+that
    Liu Xiaoyan is so nice a teacher that everyone loves and respects her.
    刘晓艳是如此好的一个老师,以至于每个人都敬爱她.
8.2.3 such…that
  • such+a/an+形容词+可数名词单数+that

    It was such a terrible show that none of us would pay for watching it again.

    这场演出太糟糕了,以至于我们都不会再花钱去看了.(注意:so…that和such…that两个结构可以互换,但要调整冠词的位置)

  • such+形容词+可数名词复数/不可数名词+that

    They are such adorable babies that we all love them.

    这些婴儿都很可爱,我们都很喜欢他们.

9. 条件状语从句(6/9)

事实上,条件状语从句经常会与虚拟语气结合使用.

9.1 引导词

  • 常用引导词:

    if, unless(表示 ifnot)等.

  • 特殊引导词:

    as/ so long as(只要), only if(只要), providing/ provided that(假如), supposing(that)(假如), in case that(以防), on condition that(如果)等.

9.2 示例

  • 只要有一丝希望,我就不会放弃.
    I will never give up so long as there is a ghost of hope.

10. 让步状语从句(7/9)

让步状语从句绝对是作文中的经典表达,如果分析原因时,写出来的句子比较短,就可以在后面加一个由 although引导的让步状语从 句来拉长句子。

  • 宠物的确给我奶奶带来了很多快乐,虽然照顾它们需要时间和精力。

    Pets indeed bring much delight to my grandma although taking care of them needs time and energy。

宠物的确给我奶奶带来了很多快乐,虽然照顾它们需要时间和精力。
Pets indeed bring much delight to my grandma although taking care of them needs time and energy。

10.1 引导词

  • 常用引导词:

    though, although, even if, even though等。

  • 特殊引导词:

    as, while(作“虽然”之意讲,用在句首), no matter。。(无论), in spite of the fact that(虽然,尽管), whatever, whoever, wherever, whenever, however, whichever等。

10.2 示例

  • 他虽然经历了多次失败,但依然坚持梦想.
    Although/ Though he failed again and again, he still adheres to pursuing his dream.
  • 自动化机器虽然有很多优点,但它们只能干人们吩咐它们要干的事。
    As Automatic machines have many advantages。 it can only do the jobs they have been told to do。

11. 方式状语从句(8/9)

11.1 引导词

  • 常用引导词:

    as,asif, as though(好像,似乎)等.

  • 特殊引导词:

    the way(方式)等.

除此以外,有些介词(短语)也表示方式:by, through,in…way,in.… manner(以 …的方式)等.

11.2 示例

  • 她和我说话的样子好像她是我妈一样.
    She talks with me as she were my mother.

  • 你希望人家怎样待你,你就要怎样待人.

    They are talking as if they had been friends for years.

12. 比较状语从句(9/9)

12.1 引导词

  • 常用引导词:

    as, than等.

  • 特殊引导词:

    the more.… the more.…, more than,more…than., not so much.as.…等.

12.1.1 as…as…

as…as…的用法和so…that…一样,有形容词(短语)、副词(短语)的地方都可以考 虑使用该句型。

  • Gong Li looks as graceful as a red rose, who can take many people’ s breath away.
12.1.2 the more.…. the more .….越…,越…
  • 你爬得越高,就看得越远。
    【翻译】 The higher one climbs, the farther he will look。
    【思路分析】正式用语中,代词you经常用one来代替。
12.1.3 more than的用法
  • 后加名词(短语),翻译成”不仅仅是”.
    He is more than a teacher. In fact, he can write some poems in his spare time.
  • 后加形容词(短语),翻译成”非常”.
    Americans are more than hospitable when facing strangers.
12.1.4 not so much as = not even甚至不/没有
  • He cannot so much as sing a song.

    【翻译】他甚至不会唱一首歌.

  • He did not so much as ask me to have a cup of tea when I visited his lab.

    【翻译】我去他实验室时,他甚至不邀请我喝一杯茶.

12.1.5 not so much A as B

与其说A,倒不如说B 举例

  • He is not so much a teacher as a poet.
    与其说他是个老师,倒不如说他是个诗人.
12.1.6 more A than B

与其说B,不如说A 举例

  • He is more a teacher than a poet.
    与其说他是个诗人,不如说他是个老师.

12.2 示例

  • 今天的年轻人的境况比我们过去要好.
    The youth of today are better off than we used to be.
  • She is not so energetic as she used to be.
    她不像过去那样充满活力了.

13. 分词做状语

13.1 把状语从句转化成分词作状语

  • If winter comes, spring will arrive soon.

第一步:把状语从句最明显的标志一引导词去掉。那么就会出现一个语法错误的现象一一逗号在连接两个句子。

  • Winter comes, spring will arrive soon。

第二步:既然逗号不能连接两个句子,那我们可以考虑把前面的句子变成非句子结构。 那怎么把句子变成不是句子(非句子结构)呢?只需要把动词(词组)变成不是动词(词组) (非谓语结构)就可以实现这一步。那就是:

  • Winter coming, spring will arrive soon。

第三步:看非谓语部分的主语和后面句子的主语是否一致。如果一致,分词的主语省略; 如果不一致,分词的主语保留。就本句话而言,显然主语不一致,所以保留。

  • 举例:

状语从句: Because I am fat, I feel delighted.

分词作状语: Being fat, I feel delighted.

13.2 分词做状语

是不是非得出现状语从句方能使用分词作状语呢? 其实只要是在能够用逗号来连接两个句子的情况下,都可以把那个次要的句子变成分词作状语。

那个老妇人坐在角落里,眼里充满了泪水.

The old lady sits in the corner,her eyes are filled with tears.

【解析】该翻译显然是错误的,因为逗号不能连接两个句子.所以要把第一个句子的谓 语动词变成非谓语动词,于是写成:

The old lady sitting in the corner,her eyes are filled with tears.

14. 总结

14.1 写作

讲到定语时,我们说定语是把句子拉长增色的工具。想过吗?任意一个句子都可以增加状语成分。

比如:我正在看刘晓艳写的书. I am reading the book written by Liu Xiaoyan.

  • 加个副词(短语):I am reading the book written by Liu Xiaoyan diligently..

  • (加个时间):I am reading the book written by Liu Xiaoyan at the moment..

  • (加个地点):I am reading the book written by Liu Xiaoyan on the playground.

  • (加个原因):I am reading the book written by Liu Xiaoyan because it is so interes- ting and attractive.

  • (加个让步状语):Although I don’t want to take part in any examination,I am reading the book written by Liu Xiaoyan.

14.2 定语和状语的区别

  • She smiled when she saw me.(when后是状语)
  • The woman who saw her son smiled immediately.(who后是定语)
  • I loved the man when I met him.when后是状语.(定语从句中,如果先行词是人,引导 词不可能是when.)
14.2.1 区分既像定语又像状语的情况

比如:I love a boy in the kindergarten。

如果是定语就译为:我爱上了一个幼儿园的小男生。

如果是状语就译为:在幼儿园,我爱上了一个小男生。

分析长难句时如果遇到这种情况,两种译法都没有错误(除非有明显的语境提示)。但是一般情况下,定语比状语出现的概率大,所以如果遇到这种情况,推荐定语优先原则。

14.2.2 区分when引导的是定语从句还是状语从句

I was singing when she came in。 当她进来的时候,我正在唱歌。

I still remember that day when you promised you would love me forever。 我仍然记得那天,当时你承诺会爱我一辈子。

以上两句话,区分的关键在于看when之前是不是表示时间的词。

如果是表示时间的词, 那通常就是定语从句,when翻译为“当时,这时”或“届时”;

如果when前面不是表示时间的词,那通常是状语从句,when前置翻译成“当…的时候”

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